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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020
 
or
 
Transition Report Pursuant Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the transition period from                          to                         .
 
Commission file number 001-36467
 
RESONANT INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 45-4320930
(State or other jurisdiction of (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization) Identification No.)
10900 Stonelake Blvd, Suite 100, Office 02-130
Austin, Texas 78759
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code)
(805) 308-9803
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par valueRESNThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:



Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 
 
As of November 6, 2020, the issuer had 54,176,167 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.



RESONANT INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page No.
   
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
 
i

Table of Contents
PART I:  FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.                     Financial Statements
 
RESONANT INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
 September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
ASSETS 
CURRENT ASSETS  
Cash and cash equivalents$20,123,000 $10,688,000 
Accounts receivable407,000 78,000 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets531,000 375,000 
TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS21,061,000 11,141,000 
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT  
Property and equipment4,978,000 4,519,000 
Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization(3,310,000)(2,634,000)
PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, NET1,668,000 1,885,000 
OTHER NONCURRENT ASSETS  
Domain name and other intangibles, net19,000 33,000 
Patents, net of accumulated amortization of $312,000 and $258,000, respectively
2,014,000 1,543,000 
Restricted cash105,000 150,000 
Goodwill873,000 831,000 
Operating lease right-of-use assets2,049,000 2,496,000 
Other assets112,000 68,000 
TOTAL OTHER NONCURRENT ASSETS5,172,000 5,121,000 
TOTAL ASSETS$27,901,000 $18,147,000 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
CURRENT LIABILITIES  
Accounts payable$945,000 $1,100,000 
Accrued expenses550,000 521,000 
Accrued salaries and payroll related expenses2,529,000 2,368,000 
Deferred revenue1,748,000 1,731,000 
Operating lease liabilities, current651,000 612,000 
TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES6,423,000 6,332,000 
LONG-TERM LIABILITIES  
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion1,566,000 2,059,000 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion630,000  
TOTAL LIABILITIES8,619,000 8,391,000 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)00
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 100,000,000 authorized and 53,396,347 outstanding as of September 30, 2020, and 33,156,246 outstanding as of December 31, 2019
53,000 33,000 
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 3,000,000 authorized and none outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019
  
Additional paid-in capital162,959,000 132,214,000 
Accumulated other comprehensive income45,000 1,000 
Accumulated deficit(143,775,000)(122,492,000)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY19,282,000 9,756,000 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$27,901,000 $18,147,000 

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
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RESONANT INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(Unaudited)
 
 Three Months Ended 
 September 30,
Nine Months Ended 
September 30,
 2020201920202019
REVENUES$1,405,000 $79,000 $2,553,000 $276,000 
OPERATING EXPENSES  
Research and development4,413,000 4,609,000 14,720,000 13,628,000 
Sales, marketing and administration3,055,000 2,952,000 9,170,000 8,931,000 
TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES7,468,000 7,561,000 23,890,000 22,559,000 
NET OPERATING LOSS(6,063,000)(7,482,000)(21,337,000)(22,283,000)
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)  
Interest and investment income1,000 42,000 65,000 220,000 
Other expense(1,000)(7,000)(10,000)(18,000)
TOTAL OTHER INCOME, NET  35,000 55,000 202,000 
LOSS BEFORE INCOME TAXES(6,063,000)(7,447,000)(21,282,000)(22,081,000)
Provision for income taxes  1,000 1,000 
NET LOSS$(6,063,000)$(7,447,000)$(21,283,000)$(22,082,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax27,000 (16,000)44,000 (10,000)
COMPREHENSIVE LOSS$(6,036,000)$(7,463,000)$(21,239,000)$(22,092,000)
NET LOSS PER SHARE - BASIC AND DILUTED$(0.11)$(0.26)$(0.43)$(0.78)
Weighted average shares outstanding — basic and diluted53,243,854 29,169,495 50,004,688 28,295,248 
 
See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

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RESONANT INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
For the Three and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020 and 2019
(Unaudited)
 
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance, January 1, 202033,156,246 $33,000 $132,214,000 $(122,492,000)$1,000 $9,756,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units378,051 — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,338,000 — — 1,338,000 
Sale of common stock, net of offering costs19,166,667 19,000 26,441,000 — — 26,460,000 
Net loss— — — (8,005,000)— (8,005,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 9,000 9,000 
Balance, March 31, 202052,700,964 $52,000 $159,993,000 $(130,497,000)$10,000 $29,558,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units405,077 1,000 — — — 1,000 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,625,000 — — 1,625,000 
Additional offering costs in connection with February sale of common stock— — (50,000)— — (50,000)
Exercise of warrants6,640 — — — — — 
Net loss— — — (7,215,000)— (7,215,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 8,000 8,000 
Balance, June 30, 202053,112,681 $53,000 $161,568,000 $(137,712,000)$18,000 $23,927,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units281,791 — — — —  
Stock-based compensation— — 1,388,000 — — 1,388,000 
Exercise of stock options1,875 — 3,000 — — 3,000 
Net loss— — — (6,063,000)— (6,063,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 27,000 27,000 
Balance, September 30, 202053,396,347 $53,000 $162,959,000 $(143,775,000)$45,000 $19,282,000 


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 Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance, January 1, 201927,391,290 $27,000 $115,450,000 $(92,564,000)$(15,000)$22,898,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units116,997 — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,040,000 — — 1,040,000 
Exercise of warrants140,000 — 400,000 — — 400,000 
Net loss— — — (7,137,000)— (7,137,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — (10,000)(10,000)
Balance, March 31, 201927,648,287 $27,000 $116,890,000 $(99,701,000)$(25,000)$17,191,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units334,774 — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,460,000 — — 1,460,000 
Exercise of warrants346,809 1,000 986,000 — — 987,000 
Net loss— — — (7,498,000)— (7,498,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax— — — — 16,000 16,000 
Balance, June 30, 201928,329,870 $28,000 $119,336,000 $(107,199,000)$(9,000)$12,156,000 
Vesting of restricted stock units198,749 — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,351,000 — — 1,351,000 
Issuance of common stock3,960,560 4,000 9,936,000 — — 9,940,000 
Net loss— — — (7,447,000)— (7,447,000)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax— — — — (16,000)(16,000)
Balance, September 30, 201932,489,179 $32,000 $130,623,000 $(114,646,000)$(25,000)$15,984,000 
 






See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
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RESONANT INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
 Nine months ended September 30,
 20202019
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES  
Net Loss$(21,283,000)$(22,082,000)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization747,000 735,000 
Stock-based compensation4,463,000 4,200,000 
Non-cash loss on disposal of assets 1,000 
Non-cash patent write-off47,000 104,000 
Right-of-use asset amortization447,000 440,000 
Changes in assets and liabilities:  
Accounts receivable(329,000)(1,841,000)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(156,000)102,000 
Other assets(44,000)1,000 
Accounts payable(107,000)280,000 
Accrued expenses(51,000)101,000 
Accrued salaries and payroll related expenses50,000 (433,000)
Deferred revenue647,000 1,838,000 
Operating lease liabilities(454,000)(346,000)
Net cash used in operating activities(16,023,000)(16,900,000)
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES  
Purchases of property and equipment(451,000)(715,000)
Expenditures for patents and domain names(549,000)(306,000)
Redemption of investments held-to-maturity 29,295,000 
Purchase of investments held-to-maturity (12,432,000)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(1,000,000)15,842,000 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES  
Gross proceeds from the sale of common stock from private placement offering 10,020,000 
Offering costs in connection with private placement offering (80,000)
Gross proceeds from the sale of common stock from underwritten public offering28,750,000  
Offering costs in connection with underwritten public offering(2,340,000) 
Proceeds from exercise of warrants 1,387,000 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options3,000  
Net cash provided by financing activities26,413,000 11,327,000 
Effects of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash  
NET INCREASE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH9,390,000 10,269,000 
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH — Beginning of period10,838,000 4,605,000 
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH — End of period$20,228,000 $14,874,000 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION  
Taxes Paid$1,000 $1,000 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF NON-CASH ACTIVITIES
Restricted stock units issued in settlement of liability$363,000 $349,000 
Property and equipment included in accounts payable$131,000 $37,000 
Property and equipment included in accrued expenses$239,000 $16,000 
Patents included in accounts payable$110,000 $70,000 
Patents included in accrued expenses$ $2,000 
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    The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets to the total of the same such amounts shown above:

September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents$20,123,000 $10,688,000 
Restricted cash105,000 150,000 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$20,228,000 $10,838,000 


See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
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RESONANT INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements 
NOTE 1—ORGANIZATION AND DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
Overview
     Resonant Inc. is a late-stage development company located in Goleta, California, with offices in Burlingame, California, Austin, Texas and Neuchâtel Switzerland.  We were incorporated in Delaware in January 2012 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Superconductor Technologies Inc., or STI. Resonant LLC, a limited liability company, was formed in California in May 2012. We changed our form of ownership from a limited liability company to a corporation in an exchange transaction in June 2013, when we commenced business. We are the successor of Resonant LLC.  We completed our initial public offering, or IPO, on May 29, 2014. On July 6, 2016 we acquired all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of GVR Trade S.A, or GVR. GVR, located in Switzerland, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Resonant Inc.

     The innovative software platform we continue to develop is based on fundamentally new technology that we call Infinite Synthesized Networks®, or ISN®, to configure and connect resonators, the building blocks of RF filters. Currently, we are leveraging ISN® to develop designs targeted for either the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) or Temperature Compensated, Surface Acoustic Wave (TC-SAW) manufacturing processes. We also enabled ISN® for BAW designs, which has resulted in our invention of a novel resonator structure based on a combination of interdigital transducer (IDT) and piezoelectric layer, the first family of which we call XBAR®, which exhibits performance parameters suitable for 5G and 5-7GHz WiFi applications - high frequency operation, large bandwidth and high power reliability.     
    Using ISN® we have developed an IP portfolio of more than 250 patents filed or issued, with more than 90 filed or issued targeting XBAR®, 5G and high frequency WiFi applications. In addition, with continued requirements for increasing numbers of filter designs our innovative software platform addresses the need for increased designer efficiency, reduced time to market and lower unit costs in the designs of filters for radio frequency, or RF Front-Ends for the mobile device, Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) and Infrastructure industries.  The RF Front-End, or RFFE, is the circuitry responsible for analog signal processing and is located between the device’s antenna and its digital circuitry. Filters are a critical component of the RFFE used to select desired radio frequency signals and reject unwanted signals. 
    We believe licensing our designs is the most direct and effective means of validating our IP and IP related libraries and demonstrating the power and accuracy of our ISN® multi-physics EDA platform.  Our target customers make part or all of the RFFE. We intend to retain ownership of our IP, trade secrets and designs, and we expect to be compensated through license fees and royalties based on sales of RFFE filters that incorporate our IP, trade secrets and designs.
Capital Resources and Liquidity
    As of September 30, 2020, our accumulated deficit totaled $143.8 million. In the nine months ended September 30, 2020 our net loss totaled $21.3 million and we used $17.0 million of cash for operating activities, the purchase of property and equipment and expenditures for patents. To date we have not generated significant revenues to enable profitability. We expect to continue to incur significant losses. These factors raise substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern. At September 30, 2020 we had cash and cash equivalents of $20.1 million. In the absence of a significant revenue increase these cash resources will provide sufficient funding into the second quarter of 2021. We are subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with a new business. We also have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic which has added additional risks and uncertainties. Our continuance as a going concern is dependent on our future profitability. We are actively pursuing expanding our technology portfolio, increasing our revenue opportunities by completing deliverables under current contracts and entering into new prepaid and paid up royalty arrangements, and efficiently managing operations and exploring further cost saving opportunities. We may not be successful in these efforts. We may need to seek to raise additional capital from the sale of equity securities or incurrence of indebtedness. There can be no assurance that additional financing will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all, in which case we might be forced to make substantial reductions in our operating expenses which could adversely affect our ability to implement our business plan and ultimately our viability as a company. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Recent Developments
The coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic continues to spread in the United States, Asia and Europe, the major markets in which we operate. The pandemic’s ultimate impact on our operations and financial performance depends in part on
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many factors not within our control and that vary by region (heightening the uncertainty as to COVID-19's ultimate impact), including, without limitation: restrictive governmental and business actions that have been and continue to be taken in response (including travel restrictions, work from home requirements, and other workforce limitations); economic stimulus, funding and relief programs and other governmental economic responses; the effectiveness of governmental actions; economic uncertainty in key global markets and financial market volatility; levels of economic contraction or growth; the impact of the pandemic on health and safety; the pace of recovery if and when the pandemic subsides; and how significantly the number of cases increases as economies reopen and restrictive governmental and business actions are relaxed.

Restrictions on travel and the imposition of stay-at-home or work remote conditions have impacted our operations and those of our clients. While we have not experienced major disruptions, clients have requested engagement deferrals and our employees’ ability to deliver our products and services has been impacted. We continue to actively communicate with and listen to our customers to best ensure that we are responding to their needs in the current environment with innovative solutions that will not only be beneficial now but also over the long-term. However, our ability to interact with customers has been impacted by the current environment. For example, we believe that our inability to meet in-person with current or prospective customers, as well as the cancellation or postponement of Company-sponsored events or third-party events at which our products are featured, may have a negative impact on our business.

    If current restrictions continue for an extended period of time, we may, among other issues, experience delays in product development, a decreased ability to support our customers, further disruptions in sales and marketing activities and an overall lack of productivity. Similarly, significant outbreaks, continued travel restrictions, stay-at-home or work remote conditions, or other restrictions may impact our customers’ ability to manufacture or deliver raw materials or provide key components or services, which could result in delays in the demand from our customers to produce designs. The pandemic may also impact the expansion of current and/or the roll out of new services which could impact our customers' demand for their products, which could reduce their demand for our products or services. While we don’t know and cannot quantify specific impacts, we expect we may be negatively affected if we encounter delays in our product development efforts, reductions in demand due to disruptions in the operations of our customers or their end customers, disruptions in local and global economies, volatility in the global financial markets, overall reductions in demand, or other COVID-19 ramifications.

NOTE 2—SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
    Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates—The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. Certain information and disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted. Accordingly, these condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in our Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 13, 2020. The year-end condensed balance sheet was derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring items, necessary for the fair statement of the condensed consolidated financial statements. The operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full year ending December 31, 2020. Prior period figures have been reclassified, wherever necessary, to conform to current presentation. Significant estimates made in preparing these financial statements include (a) assumptions to calculate the fair values of financial instruments, warrants and equity instruments and other liabilities and the deferred tax asset valuation allowance and (b) the useful lives for depreciable and amortizable assets. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments compared to historical experience and expected trends. While the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic is dynamic, we have considered its impact when developing our estimates and assumptions. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management's estimates and assumptions.
Consolidation —The accompanying financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, GVR Trade, S.A. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Cash and Cash Equivalents—We consider all liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Concentration of Credit Risk—We maintain bank accounts at one U.S. financial institution. The U.S. bank accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for up to $250,000 per account owner. GVR Trade S.A., our wholly owned Swiss-based subsidiary maintains checking accounts at one major national financial institution. Additionally, we maintain a checking account with a very minimal balance at one bank in South Korea, which is used to fund payroll and rent in
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South Korea. Management believes we are not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which our deposits are held.
Restricted Cash—Restricted cash consists of a pledged mutual fund account which is held as collateral against a letter of credit issued in May 2018 in connection with the lease of our corporate headquarters. The balance as of September 30, 2020 was $105,000 and as of December 31, 2019 was $150,000. The terms of the letter of credit allow for a step-down of $50,000 annually upon performance of certain events, primarily no late or defaulted payments. See also Note 9- Leases, for further details.
    Investments—Securities held-to-maturity: Management determines the appropriate classification of debt securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Investment/debt securities are classified as held-to-maturity when we have the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are stated at amortized cost, adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity computed under the effective interest method. Such amortization is included in investment income. Interest on securities classified as held-to-maturity is included in interest and investment income.
When the fair value of an investment instrument classified as held-to-maturity is less than its amortized cost, management assesses whether or not: (i) we have the intent to sell the instrument or (ii) it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the instrument before its anticipated recovery. If either of these conditions is met, we must recognize an other-than-temporary impairment for the difference between the instrument’s amortized cost basis and its fair value, and include such amounts in other income (expense).
    For investment instruments that do not meet the above criteria and are not expected to be recovered at the amortized cost basis, the instrument is considered other-than-temporarily impaired. For these instruments, we separate the total impairment into the credit loss component and the amount of the loss related to other factors. In order to determine the amount of the credit loss, we calculate the recovery value by performing a discounted cash flow analysis based on the current cash flows and future cash flows management expects to recover. The discount rate is the effective interest rate implicit in the underlying instrument. The amount of the total other-than-temporary impairment related to credit loss is recognized in earnings and is included in other income (expense). The amount of the total other-than-temporary impairment related to other factors is recognized in other comprehensive income. For investment instruments that have other-than-temporary impairment recognized through earnings, if through subsequent evaluation there is a significant increase in the cash flow expected, the difference between the amortized cost basis and the cash flows expected to be collected is accreted as interest income.
    Fair Value of Financial Instruments—We measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value based on the exit price notion, or price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between the market participants at the measurement date. The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their short maturities.
Accounts Receivable—Trade accounts receivable are stated net of allowances for doubtful accounts. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on review and analysis of specific customer balances that may not be collectible, customer payment history and any other customer-specific information that may impact ability to collect the receivable. Accounts are considered for write-off when they become past due and when it is determined that the probability of collection is remote. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment consists of leasehold improvements associated with our corporate offices, software purchased during the normal course of business, equipment and office furniture and fixtures, all of which are recorded at cost. Depreciation and amortization is recorded using the straight-line method over the respective useful lives of the assets ranging from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of lease term or useful life. Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable.
    Domain name and other intangibles, net —Intangible assets are recorded at cost and amortized over the useful life. In the case of business combinations, intangible assets are recorded at fair value. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, domain name and other intangibles, net, includes a domain name and other intangible assets purchased as part of our acquisition of GVR, including customer relationships, technology and a trademark. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable.
    Patents, net —Patents are recorded at cost and amortized over the useful life. Patents are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. In certain cases, patents may expire or be abandoned as we no longer plan to pursue them. In such cases we write off the capitalized patent costs as patent abandonment costs which are included in research and development expenses.
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Goodwill—At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, goodwill represents the difference between the price paid to acquire GVR and the fair value of the assets acquired, net of assumed liabilities. We review goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable.
 Revenue Recognition—Revenue is recognized upon the transfer of control of promised goods or services to the customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. Revenue consists primarily of upfront non-refundable fees received in connection with filter design projects with customers and royalties. Our performance obligation is to design a licensable filter in accordance with customer specifications. The license of the completed design is considered part of this performance obligation as the design and licensing of the filter are highly interdependent. We recognize revenue over the course of the design development phase as our customers are able to benefit from our design services as they are provided, primarily by marketing the in-process design to their customers. We recognize revenue from our design services based on efforts expended to date. At the end of each reporting period, we reassess our measure of progress and adjust revenue when appropriate. We record the expenses related to these projects in the periods incurred and they are generally included in research and development expense.
In most cases, upfront non-refundable payments, in the form of prepaid royalties or other fees, related to design development are recognized over a period of 12 months to 18 months. Contracts generally include upfront non-refundable prepaid royalties or fees, intended to support our initial engineering product development efforts, and may include milestone payments based upon the successful completion of certain deliverables. Milestone payments represent variable consideration, and we use the "most likely amount" approach to determine the amount we ultimately expect to receive. At contract inception, we assess the likelihood of achieving milestones to estimate the total consideration we believe we will receive for our services.
Upon completion of design services, our customers retain a license over the completed design. The license will typically last for a minimum of two years, and in many cases for the life of the design. Sales-based royalties are recognized upon shipment, by our customer, of products that include our licensed design. Payment is generally due within 30 days.
We apply the practical expedients available in ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, to not disclose information about 1) remaining performance obligations that have original expected durations of one year or less and 2) variable consideration that is a sales-based or usage-based royalty.
Research and Development—Costs and expenses that can be clearly identified as research and development are charged to expense as incurred in accordance with ASC Topic 730-10, Research and Development.
Operating Leases—We lease office space and research facilities under operating leases. Certain lease agreements contain free or escalating rent payment provisions.
We determine if an arrangement is a lease at lease inception. Operating leases are included in right-of-use (“ROU”) lease assets, other current liabilities (current portion of lease obligations), and long term lease obligations on our balance sheets. ROU lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease obligations represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating ROU lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The ROU lease asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. We evaluate renewal options at lease inception and on an ongoing basis and include renewal options which we are reasonably certain to exercise in our expected lease term when classifying leases and measuring lease liabilities. We allocate the consideration between lease and nonlease components and exclude nonlease components from our recognized lease assets and liabilities. See also Note 9 - Leases.
Minimum lease payments, including scheduled rent increases, are recognized as lease expenses on a straight-line basis over the applicable lease term. We recognize lease expenses within research and development and sales, marketing and administration expenses on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
We are not party to any leases for which we are the lessor.
Stock-Based Compensation—We account for stock options in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. We use the Black-Scholes option valuation model for estimating fair value at the date of grant.
We account for restricted stock units issued at fair value, based on the market price of our stock on the date of grant, net of estimated forfeitures. Compensation expense is recognized for the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest over the period during which the recipient renders the required services to the Company generally using the straight-line single option method.
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In the case of award modifications, we account for the modification in accordance with ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, whereby we recognize the effect of the modification in the period the award is modified.
Stock-based compensation expense is included in research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses.
     Earnings Per Share, or EPS—EPS is computed in accordance with ASC Topic 260, Earnings per Share, and is calculated using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents unless the effect is to reduce a loss or increase the income per share. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options (using the treasury stock method), the exercise of warrants (using the if-converted method) and the vesting of restricted stock unit awards.
Income Taxes—We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, or ASC 740, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future consequences of events that have been recognized in our condensed consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The measurement of the deferred items is based on enacted tax laws. In the event the future consequences of differences between financial reporting bases and the tax bases of our assets and liabilities result in a deferred tax asset, ASC 740 requires an evaluation of the probability of being able to realize the future benefits indicated by such asset. A valuation allowance related to a deferred tax asset is recorded when it is more likely than not that some portion or the entire deferred tax asset will not be realized. As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income tax expense in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We also assess temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting differences. We record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit that is more likely than not to be realized. For the period when we were organized as a limited liability company, we were treated as a partnership for federal and state income tax purposes under the entity classification domestic default rules. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. We recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income taxes, and there were none for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.
     We have filed, or are in the process of filing, tax returns that are subject to audit by the relevant tax authorities. Although the ultimate outcome would be unknown, we believe that any adjustments that may result from tax return audits are not likely to have a material, adverse effect on our condensed consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
Foreign Currency Translation—The Swiss Franc has been determined to be the functional currency for the net assets of our Swiss-based subsidiary. We translate the assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars at each reporting period using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and record the effects of the foreign currency translation in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareholders' equity. We translate the income and expenses to U.S. dollars at each reporting period using the average exchange rate in effect for the period and record the effects of the foreign currency translation as other comprehensive income (loss) in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are included in net loss in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
    Credit Losses—In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments- Credit Losses (Topic 326). In April and November 2019, and February 2020, the FASB issued implementation amendments to the June 2016 ASU (collectively, the amended guidance). The amended guidance replaced the current incurred loss methodology for credit losses with a current expected credit loss ("CECL") model, which requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The amended guidance expanded the information that an entity must consider in developing its expected credit loss estimates. Additionally, the updates amended the accounting for credit losses for purchased financial assets with a more-than-significant amount of credit deterioration since origination. The amended guidance requires enhanced disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand significant estimates and judgments used in estimated credit losses. Early adoption is permitted. The guidance is effective for us in January 2023. We have no plan to early adopt the guidance and are currently evaluating the impact, which we believe will be immaterial to our condensed consolidated financial statements.


NOTE 3—REVENUE RECOGNITION
We record contract assets and contract liabilities in connection with revenue recognized for filter design projects.
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Contract Assets - Contract assets, other than accounts receivable, consist of unbilled revenue and generally arise when revenue is recognized on a contract whose transaction price includes an estimate of variable consideration from milestone payments. We do not have material amounts of contract assets as we have relatively few contracts, only modest design service fees and a small number of contracts containing milestone payments. Contract asset balances are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Contract Liabilities - Our contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue, which represents the revenue associated with remaining performance obligations within our customer contracts. We classify contract liabilities as current or long-term based on the expected timing of the remaining performance obligations. The current and long-term portions of deferred revenue are separately stated in our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Summary of changes in contract assets and liabilities for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019:
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Contract assets
Contract assets, beginning$ $36,000 
Contract assets at beginning of year transferred to accounts receivable (36,000)
Reversal of contract assets due to changes in transaction price (8,000)
Contract assets recorded on contracts during the period 8,000 
Contract assets, ending$ $ 
Contract liabilities
Contract liabilities, beginning$1,731,000 $271,000 
Recognition of revenue included in beginning of year contract liabilities(1,679,000)(199,000)
Contract liabilities, net of revenue recognized on contracts during the period2,326,000 2,037,000 
Contract liabilities, ending$2,378,000 $2,109,000 

We derive a substantial majority of our revenue from a single customer. Effective September 30, 2019 we entered into a collaboration and license agreement with Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Pursuant to the collaboration agreement, we have agreed with Murata to collaborate on the development of proprietary circuit designs using our XBAR® technology, and we licensed to Murata rights for products in four specific radio frequencies, or bands. Murata has agreed to pay us up to an aggregate of $9.0 million as pre-paid royalties and other fees for the licensed designs and certain other intellectual property developed in the collaboration, payable in installments over a multi-year development period, with each installment conditional upon our achievement of certain milestones and deliverables acceptable to Murata in its discretion. Murata may terminate the collaboration agreement at any time upon thirty (30) days prior written notice to us.
Murata’s rights to our XBAR® technology are exclusive for a period of 30 months, through March 2022, during which period we may not grant to any third party the right to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer for sale or import any filter or resonator produced through the use of the XBAR® technology for use in mobile communication devices.
Under the collaboration agreement, the first payment of $2.0 million was collected in October 2019 and the second payment of $2.5 million was collected in September 2020 upon the achievement of the second milestone.
In accordance with the guidance of ASC 606, we are required to evaluate the variable consideration within the contract, primarily the milestone payments, and assess the likelihood of achievement in determining our transaction price. Additionally, we must assess whether the variable consideration is constrained and whether recording such variable revenue may result in a significant reversal of revenue due to uncertainties. We continue to evaluate variable consideration for inclusion in the transaction price, and ultimately the revenue recognized, at each reporting period. We recognize revenue for the Murata contract over the estimated design development period, based on the level of effort expended, as measured by costs incurred, over total expected costs, as the services are performed. For the periods ended September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we have determined that some of the milestone payments due upon achievement of certain performance criteria are constrained and are thus not included in the transaction price. Therefore, revenue related to those milestone payments has not been recognized. Revenue recognition related to each milestone payment will commence once the constraint is lifted. Consequently, revenue recognition related to the Murata contract will vary from quarter to quarter. During the three and nine months ended September
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30, 2020 we recognized $1.2 million and $2.7 million, respectively, of revenue related to the collaboration and license agreement.

NOTE 4—INVESTMENTS HELD-TO-MATURITY
    We classify investments as held-to-maturity when we have the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity.
    During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, we invested in commercial papers that were classified as investments held-to-maturity. As of September 30, 2019, all investments had matured. We did not recognize an other-than-temporary impairment or comprehensive gain or loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019.
    As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we did not have any investments classified as held-to-maturity.
    We recorded interest and investment income of $1,000 and $42,000 for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and $65,000 and $220,000 for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, associated with our cash and investment accounts.

NOTE 5—WARRANTS
From time to time, we have issued warrants to purchase shares of common stock. These warrants have been issued in connection with the financing transactions and consulting services. Our warrants are subject to standard anti-dilution provisions applicable to shares of our common stock.

    A roll-forward of warrant share activity from January 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020 is shown in the following table:
 Exercise PriceExpiration DateIssued and
Outstanding
Warrants as of
January 1, 2020
Warrants
Exercised/
Expired
 Issued and Outstanding Warrants as of September 30, 2020
Consulting Warrants$0.016/17/20206,667 (6,667)(1) 
Financing Warrants$3.356/17/202062,530 (62,530)(2) 
Private Placement Warrants - September 2017$4.859/28/20201,966,319 (1,966,319)(3) 
Placement Agent Warrants $4.859/28/202098,846 (98,846)(4) 
 2,134,362 (2,134,362) 

(1) During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, there were 6,667 warrants that were exercised through a cashless exercise which netted 6,640 shares being issued.
(2) During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, there were 62,530 warrants that expired.
(3) During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, there were 5,319 warrants that were cancelled and 1,961,000 warrants that expired.
(4) During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, there were 98,846 warrants that expired.

A roll-forward of warrant share activity from January 1, 2019 to September 30, 2019 is shown in the following table:
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 Issued and
Outstanding
Warrants as of
January 1, 2019
Warrants
Exercised/
Expired
Issued and Outstanding Warrants as of September 30, 2019
Consulting Warrants6,667   6,667 
Financing Warrants62,530  62,530 
Underwriting Warrants310,500 (310,500)(1) 
Private Placement Warrants - 2016818,063 (818,063)(2) 
Underwriting Warrants - Public Offering 2016122,175 (122,175)(3) 
Private Placement Warrants - September 20171,966,319  1,966,319 
Placement Agent Warrants98,846  98,846 
 3,385,100 (1,250,738)2,134,362 

(1) During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, there were 310,500 warrants that expired.
(2) During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, there were 485,000 warrants exercised for cash, 44,928 warrants that were exercised through a cashless exercise which netted 1,809 shares being issued and 288,135 warrants that expired.
(3) During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, there were 122,175 warrants that expired.

NOTE 6—STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY AND LOSS PER SHARE
Common Stock
     Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, we are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to dividends as and when declared by the Board of Directors, subject to rights and holders of all classes of stock outstanding having priority rights to dividends. There have been no dividends declared to date. Each share of common stock is entitled to one vote.
    On July 31, 2019, we entered into a securities purchase agreement for the sale of an aggregate of 3,960,560 shares of common stock at a price of $2.53 per share. Gross proceeds were approximately $10.0 million with net proceeds of $9.9 million after deducting fees and operating expenses. The initial closing, for 1,193,762 shares, took place on August 9, 2019 and gross proceeds were approximately $3.0 million. The second closing with a single investor, which was subject to additional conditions, including the execution of a definitive multi-year commercial agreement with an affiliate of the investor, for 2,766,798 shares and gross proceeds of $7.0 million took place on September 30, 2019.
    On February 6, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement relating to an underwritten public offering of 16,666,667 shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value, at an offering price to the public of $1.50 per share. Pursuant to the underwriting agreement, the Company granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 2,500,000 shares of common stock on the same terms and conditions. The underwriters exercised their option with respect to all 2,500,000 additional shares on February 10, 2020. We consummated the sale of an aggregate of 19,166,667 shares of our common stock, including the 2,500,000 shares subject to the underwriters’ over-allotment option, on February 11, 2020, and received gross proceeds of approximately $28.8 million, or net proceeds of approximately $26.4 million after deducting the underwriting discount and expenses paid by us.
On August 14, 2020, we entered into an At-The-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement whereby we may offer and sell from time to time, shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, up to an aggregate offering price of $25.0 million (the "ATM equity program"). No common stock has been issued under the ATM equity program as of September 30, 2020.
Preferred Stock
Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, we are authorized to issue 3,000,000 shares of preferred stock. The Board of Directors has the authority, without action by our stockholders, to designate and issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. To-date, no preferred shares have been issued.
Loss Per Share
The following table presents the number of shares excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods below:
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Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20202019
Common stock warrants 2,134,362 
Common stock options1,152,552 1,338,603 
Non-vested restricted stock unit awards3,552,143 2,672,087 
Total shares excluded from net loss per share attributable to common stockholders4,704,695 6,145,052 
NOTE 7— STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan
    In January 2014, our board of directors approved the 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan and amended and restated the plan in March 2014. Our stockholders approved the Amended and Restated 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan, or the 2014 Plan, in March 2014. Our 2014 Plan initially permitted for the issuance of equity-based instruments covering up to a total of 1,400,000 shares of common stock. Our board of directors and stockholders approved an increase of 1,300,000 shares in June 2016, an increase of 3,250,000 shares in June 2017, an increase of 4,000,000 shares in June 2019, and an increase of 5,000,000 shares in June 2020, bringing the total shares allowed under the plan to 14,950,000.
Option Valuation
    We account for stock options in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. We use the Black-Scholes option valuation model for estimating fair value at the date of grant. Option forfeitures are estimated at the time of valuation and reduce expense ratably over the vesting period. This estimate will be adjusted periodically based on the extent to which actual option forfeitures differ, or are expected to differ, from the previous estimate, when it is material. The expected term used for options is the estimated period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding. We have estimated the expected life of stock options using the “simplified” method, whereby, the expected life equals the arithmetic average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option due to our lack of sufficient historical data. Beginning July 2020, we use our historical volatility representative of the expected life of the instrument being valued. Previously, because our stock had not been publicly traded for a sufficiently long period of time, we used an expected volatility figure based on a review of the historical volatilities over a period of time, equivalent to the expected life of the instrument being valued, of similarly positioned public companies within our industry. The risk-free interest rate was determined from the implied yields from U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds with a remaining term consistent with the expected term of the instrument being valued.
Stock Options
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we granted incentive stock options for the purchase of 35,000 and 95,500 shares, respectively, of our common stock. The stock options granted have an exercise price range of $1.74 per share to $2.85 per share. The stock options have a term of 10 years and vest quarterly over sixteen quarters. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, the options granted had an aggregate grant date fair value of $65,000 and $160,000, respectively, utilizing the Black-Scholes option valuation model.
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, we granted incentive stock options for the purchase of 25,000 and 127,000 shares, respectively, of our common stock. The stock options have an exercise price range of $1.52 per share to $3.26 per share with a term of 10 years. The stock options vest quarterly over sixteen quarters. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, the options granted had an aggregate grant date fair value of $53,000 and $233,000, respectively, utilizing the Black-Scholes option valuation model.
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We estimated the fair value of stock options awarded during the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The fair values of stock options granted for the periods were estimated using the following assumptions:  
 Stock Option Grants Awarded During the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020Stock Option Grants Awarded During the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019
Stock Price
$1.74 to $2.85
$1.52 to $3.26
Dividend Yield0.00%0.00%
Expected Volatility
70% to 83%
70%
Risk-free interest rate
0.36% to 1.52%
1.47% to 2.62%
Expected Life7 years7 years
    Stock-based compensation expense related to stock options was $57,000 and $110,000 for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively and $186,000 and $320,000 for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from our estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. To the extent that actual forfeitures differ from our estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period the estimates were revised. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we applied a forfeiture rate of 10%, which is reflected in our stock-based compensation expense related to stock options.
Stock Option Award Activity
    The following is a summary of our stock option activity during the nine months ended September 30, 2020: 
 Number of
Options
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Life In
Years
Outstanding, January 1, 20201,340,252 $4.57 $2.88 6.95
Granted95,500 2.32 1.68 8.75
Exercised(1,875)1.80 1.23 
Canceled / Forfeited (281,325)4.17 2.71 
Outstanding, September 30, 20201,152,552 $4.48 $2.83 5.79
 
Number of
Options
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Life In
Years
Exercisable, January 1, 2020989,092 $4.85 $3.03 6.37
Vested99,346 3.75 2.39 5.17
Exercised(1,875)1.80 1.23 
Canceled / Forfeited (132,368)4.69 3.00 
Exercisable, September 30, 2020954,195 $4.77 $2.97 5.17
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The following table presents information related to stock options outstanding and exercisable at September 30, 2020: 
Options OutstandingOptions Exercisable
Exercise
Price
Outstanding
Number of
Options
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Life In
Years
Exercisable
Number
of Options
$1.52 – $3.15
333,247 5.52191,388 
$3.25 – $4.92
439,117 6.17394,464 
$5.01 – $6.00
229,570 4.28220,839 
$6.18 – $7.20
60,318 3.2660,318 
$7.54 – $7.80
67,800 3.1864,686 
$8.06 – $12.98
22,500 4.3022,500 
 1,152,552 5.17954,195 
     As of September 30, 2020, there was $377,000 of unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested employee stock options, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.5 years. The aggregate intrinsic values of outstanding stock options and vested stock options as of September 30, 2020 were $87,000 and $74,000, respectively, which represent options whose exercise price was less than the closing fair market value of our common stock on September 30, 2020 of $2.38 per share.
Restricted Stock Units Activity
    We account for restricted stock units issued at fair value, based on the market price of our stock on the date of grant, net of estimated forfeitures. RSUs issued in connection with our employee incentive programs typically vest within 10 days of grant. All other RSUs, primarily issued as long term incentives, generally vest annually over three to four years.
During the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we recorded $1.5 million and $1.3 million, respectively, of stock-based compensation related to the restricted stock unit shares that had been issued to-date. During the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we recorded $4.2 million and $3.9 million, respectively, of stock-based compensation related to the restricted stock unit shares that had been issued to-date.
     A summary of restricted stock unit activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 is as follows: 
 Number of
Restricted Share
Units
Weighted-
Average
Grant-Date Fair
Value Per Share
Outstanding at January 1, 20202,556,004 $3.38 
Granted2,486,320 1.98 
Vested(1,064,919)2.89 
Forfeited(425,262)2.57 
Outstanding at September 30, 20203,552,143 $2.64 
As of September 30, 2020, there was $5.2 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested restricted stock unit agreements which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.2 years. For restricted stock unit awards subject to graded vesting, we recognize compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the service period for the entire award.
Market-based Awards
     In August 2016, we granted 250,000 market-based restricted stock units to an executive. The restricted stock units are subject to market-based vesting requirements, measured quarterly, based on the average of (a) the average high daily trading price of our common stock for each trading day during the last month of the applicable calendar quarter and (b) the average low daily trading price of our common stock for each trading day during the last month of the applicable calendar quarter, each as reported by The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC. The restricted stock units are eligible to be earned on a quarterly basis based on a linear interpolation of the applicable share price, or in the case of a liquidation event, on the day of (or in connection with) such liquidation event based on the applicable transaction price. The share price on the date of issuance was $5.06 per share.
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    In June 2019, the market-based award was modified to increase the number of restricted stock units to 500,000 and to decrease the applicable share price. Additionally, the performance period was extended to September 30, 2022. The share price on the date of modification was $2.73 per share.

    In December 2019, we granted 200,000 market-based restricted stock units to an executive. The restricted stock units are subject to the same market-based vesting requirements discussed for the award granted in August 2016 and modified in June 2019. The share price on the date of issuance was $2.15 per share and the fair value was determined to be $26,000 using a Monte Carlo simulation.
    Once earned, the restricted stock units vest 50% on the date such restricted stock units become earned and 50% on September 30, 2022. We recognize compensation expense for restricted stock units with market conditions using a graded vesting model, based on the probability of the performance condition being met, net of estimated pre-vesting forfeitures. For the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we recognized $13,000 and $3,000 respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we recognized $38,000 and $10,000, respectively, of stock compensation expense in connection with market-based awards. For the three months ended September 30, 2020, $2,000 is included in research and development expenses and $11,000 is included in sales, marketing and administration expenses. For the three months ended September 30, 2019, $3,000 was included in sales, marketing and administration expenses. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, $6,000 is included in research and development expenses and $32,000 is included in sales, marketing and administration expenses. For the nine months ended September 30, 2019, $10,000 was included in sales, marketing and administration expenses. The unamortized expense related to these awards is $101,000 and is expected to be recognized over two years.
Incentive Bonus Awards
    We provide eligible employees, including executives, the opportunity to earn bonus awards upon achievement of predetermined performance goals and objectives. The purpose is to reward attainment of company goals and/or individual performance objectives, with award opportunities expressed as a percentage of base salary. Bonuses can be measured and paid quarterly and/or annually, and are paid in cash, equity or a combination of cash and equity, in the discretion of our compensation committee. If paid in the form of equity, the expense is included in the above disclosures for stock options or restricted stock units as applicable.
    Total stock-based compensation recorded in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss is allocated as follows: 
 Three Months Ended September 3